By Gabriel Sottas, Inge L. Ryhming

The objective of the 1989 GAMM Workshop on 3D-Computation of Incompressible inner Flows was once the simulation of a practical incompressible stream box in a major business software. In view of the problems desirous about formulating this kind of attempt case, requiring the supply of an experimental information base, severe care needed to be taken within the number of the right kind one. Professor I. L. Ryhming's notion, that the circulation via a Francis turbine configuration or components thereof will be possible as a try case, as a result of the numerical demanding situations in addition to the chance to supply an experimental facts base through the use of the experimental amenities of the Hydraulic Machines and Fluid Mechanics Institute (IMHEF) on the Swiss Federal Institute of know-how in Lausanne (EPFL), was once authorized by way of the GAMM Committee in April 1987. a systematic committee, shaped below the chairmanship of Professor I. L. Ryhming, met a couple of times to settle on the Francis turbine configuration, the try out case requirements, and so forth. , wherein the layout enter got here from the water turbine specialists. This committee made up our minds to limit the reviews to the 3 following general functions for the simplest working aspect of the turbine: • simulation of the 3D move in a Francis runner in rotation • simulation of the 3D circulation within the distributor (stay and consultant vane earrings) of this turbine • simulation of the 3D stream in an elbow draft tube The simultaneous computation of 2 or 3 of those geometries was once encouraged.

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**Additional resources for 3D-Computation of Incompressible Internal Flows: Proceedings of the GAMM Workshop held at EPFL, 13–15 September 1989, Lausanne, Switzerland**

**Example text**

The geometrical data are specified as follows : Draft tube : number of circular sections from measurement axis to outlet Nps number of points per circular sections { {X, Y, ZlNps IN s cartesian coordinates of the points per sections PHYSICAL DATA PROVIDED FOR THE FLOW SIMULATION IN THE DRAFT TUBE The following data are given : · · ·• · ·· · the specific hydraulic energy between ref. 42 the specific hydraulic energy between ref. 000 [kg/m3] • the pressure distribution P - Pref measured at the inlet of the draft tube • the velocity distribution (CR, Ca, Cz) measured at the inlet of the draft tube The pressure distribution P - Pref and the velocity distribution (CR, Ca, Cz ) measured at the inlet of the draft tube, together with the location of the measurement points, are specified in the following way : Inlet data : { Na, Npa ' { {R, e, Z, P - Pref ' CR, Ca, cZ1 Npa lNa 1 Na number of measurement axis Npa number of points per measurement axis { {R, e, ZlNpa INa cylindrical coordinates of the measurement points { {P PrerlNpa lNa pressure at each measurement points { {CR, Ca' Czl Npa lN a velocity components at each measurement points These data, in their normalized form are presented in Figure 14.

28 ; I . ;... , . ,. . . . . . ,. . . 24 i . . . . 1 ···················j·····················t···················1 ! ; ................... :\. n .................. i.................. 2 1 ···············l: ....... 1 i !. 1. +................... 12 . . . . . . +................ • "rl·····.... 8 Distance along traverse from band b Fig. j................... /+...................... 32 ~1! ~..... j . lI.. j ..................... , ");':'" ! - '::'"c,+•... ; .....! •.. 8 1 Distance along traverse from band b Fig.

The discrepancy Ll11h between the calculated and measured efficiencies is to be shared bye· and e· 2' and from Eq. 0344. The value is selected as a target for the normalization of the three velocity components, especially of the swirl velocity. CONSERVATION OF TOTAL ENERGY • The specific hydraulic energy of the runner e th can be expressed as follows: ". eth ". = Pt ". ". (14) - Pt2 ". where Pt and Pt2 are the mass averaged total energies at inlet and outlet of the runner calculated as follows: • Pt f.