By Jeremy Bernstein

This publication of essays in 4 components, written over a decade and whole of surprises for the breadth and diversity of its subject material. the 1st half is set the rules of the quantum idea which displays the author's many conversations with the past due John Bell who persuaded him that there's nonetheless no passable interpretation of the speculation. the second one half offers with nuclear guns. one of many essays matters the construction of the fashionable fuel centrifuge which was once performed by means of German prisoners of conflict within the Soviet Union. The proliferation of those centrifuges was once one of many matters within the unfold of nuclear guns. The 3rd part bargains with monetary engineering with a profile of Louis Bachelier, the French mathematician who created it firstly of the 20 th century. the ultimate part bargains with the Higgs boson and the way it really is used for producing mass. It features a specified article of ways this mechanism works.

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**Extra resources for A Chorus of Bells and Other Scientific Inquiries**

**Example text**

Electrons, Professor Frank said, are electrons. e Suppose you had a double slit and that your beam of electrons was so weak that only one electron at a time went through the system. What would happen? If both slits were open, Professor Frank told us, then over the course of time — at least according to the quantum theory — the single electrons would rerecreate the whole pattern. The pattern would not be, as one would expect for particles, the “sum” of the two open slit patterns. It would show the whole eﬀect of the interference.

This is why single electrons can produce the diﬀraction pattern when they are let through the slits one at a time. There is no collapse of the wave function or anything like it. Likewise in a measurement there is no collapse of the wave function. For example, suppose you have an observable with two possible values. Then depending on the setting of the detector the particle will be guided to one trajectory or the other. After registering its arrival the particle can continue on. The wave function has not collapsed but the part appropriate to the other possible trajectory “decoheres” — separates out — and can no longer inﬂuence the path of the particle.

Suppose you closed one of the slits and allowed the electrons to enter the apparatus one after the other. What would happen? The two-slit pattern would disappear and be replaced over the course of time by the one-slit pattern. The question that immediately occurred to me was how does the single electron going though the slit “know” that the other slit has been closed? Where does that information come from? By now I know that quantum mechanics does not provide an answer. D. f I have often wondered if young people who are now ﬁrst exposed to the theory have the same sense of wonderment that I did.