A concise German etymological dictionary: With a suppl. on by Maurice O'C Walshe

By Maurice O'C Walshe

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Additional info for A concise German etymological dictionary: With a suppl. on the etymology of some Middle High German words extinct in modern German

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Some merchants of Middle-Eastern descent, mostly Lebanese (usually referred to as "Syrians") have settled in Belize, as elsewhere in the Caribbean, at various times during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries and have started small businesses which compete with the Chinese. A more recent wave of immigrants arrived in the 1950s, as German Mennonites from Canada and the United States established farming communities in the western part of Belize. 36 CREOLE AND DIALECT CONTINUA They rarely participate in the life of the country, restricting their interactions to market activities and to small businesses such as carpentry; many move on to other communities (in Central or South America) after a few years.

Linguistically, it is identified by an absence of basilectal and acrolectal markers, or it may show redundancy in the use of both types of markers, although these occurrences may be erratic (Escure 1982; 1983b; 1984). Mesolects, which constitute "deviations" from the basilects and are typi­ cally marked by morphological substitutions, are not necessarily indicative of the Creole speaker's step toward the acquisition of the correct English or an unsuccessful attempt at mastering the prestigious standard, although it may be either.

The substratist approach also postulates a single origin for creoles, but it differs from the above in that it assumes a predominant (or exclusive) influence from the language of the lowest prestige group. The substrate hypothesis has gained support as more attention is being paid to features of West African lan­ guages that may have influenced pidgins and creoles. Supporters of this posi­ tion claim that the similarities shared by creoles are accounted for in terms of a common West African substratum (Alleyne 1980:136-180).

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