A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. by Alan Cruse

By Alan Cruse

This handy-size reference e-book comprises the entire phrases more likely to be encountered in a semester's learn of sociolinguistics. The definitions are transparent, concise and entire, and lots of examples are supplied. extra maps and diagrams supplement the textual content. hugely steered.

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Examples of these are question and answer, greeting and response greeting, invitation and acceptance or refusal, and apology and acceptance or rejection. conversational implicatures One of two basic types of implicature (the other type being conventional implicatures). Conversational implicatures have four main identifying features: 793 02 pages 001-202 38 31/3/06 10:19 Page 38 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS 1. They are not entailments, that is, they do not follow logically from what is said.

Some linguists, while accepting that certain aspects of the meaning of a word are more central than others, dispute the idea that a clear distinction can be drawn between information needed to account for the linguistic behaviour of a word and general knowledge about the referent of a word. 793 02 pages 001-202 48 31/3/06 10:19 Page 48 A GLOSSARY OF SEMANTICS AND PRAGMATICS dimensions of (lexical) meaning The semantic properties of a word can be grouped under three main headings: descriptive meaning, expressive meaning, and evocative meaning.

One way of testing for the distinction is to ask whether some portion of X still counts as X. For instance, a portion of a litre of milk is still milk, but half a car is not a car. A ‘count’ interpretation involves thinking of something as coming in separate, bounded ‘chunks’ that can be counted; a ‘mass’ interpretation conceptualises something as a continuous ‘substance’ with no inherent boundaries. When we say some chocolate, we think of the chocolate as a continuous substance without inherent boundaries; when we say two chocolates, we think of the chocolates as distinct bounded entities.

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