By Heath, Jeffrey
Jamsay is the largest-population language between a few twenty Dogon languages in Mali, West Africa. this can be the 1st entire grammar of any Dogon language, together with a whole tonology. The language is verb-final, with topic contract at the verb and without different case-marking. Its such a lot extraordinary function is the morphosyntactically caused use of stem-wide tone-contour overlays on nouns, verbs, and adjectives. All stems have a lexical tone contour equivalent to H[igh], L[ow]-H, HL, or LHL with at the least one H-tone. An examination of tone overlay is tone-dropping to stem-wide all-L. this is often used for Perfective verbs (in the presence of a focalized constituent), and for a noun or adjective prior to an adjective. it's also used to mark the top NP in a relative clause (the head NP isn't really extracted, so this can be the one direct indication of head NP status). The verb in a relative clause is morphologically a participle, agreeing with the top NP in humanness and quantity, instead of with the topic. ""Intonation"" is used grammatically. for instance, NP conjunction 'X and Y' is expressed as X Y, with no conjunction, yet with ""dying-quail"" intonation on either conjuncts.
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Extra info for A Grammar of Jamsay (Mouton Grammar Library)
There is then an H-toned pronominal for the object (as would be the case in a main clause), followed by an L-toned subject pronominal (which is unique to relatives and a few other subordinated clause types). The participial is based on a Perfective verb, which in relatives takes the form of an unsuffixed Perfective stem with overlaid H(H…)L tone. Since the head is Nonhuman, the Nonhuman Participial suffix -Ø is used. HL” indicates that a H(H…)L tone contour has been overlaid. The 2Sg object (“2SgO”) pronoun here has its lexical H-tone, so the interlinear includes no (grammatical) tonal information.
Imperfective verbs (type yç$˘rç^˘ ‘will cook on fire’, from /yç$rç@-L/). Monosyllabic stems, other than nouns and adjectives that end in a consonant, have a shape Cv˘ with long vowel. All monosyllabic verbs are of this type. Examples are the verbs ya&˘ ‘go’, dç&˘- ‘insult’, and ba@˘- ‘learn’, and the nouns du@˘ ‘burden’, de&˘ ‘father’, and bE@˘ ‘excrement’. No short-voweled Cv verb, noun, or adjective stems occur.
B. c. d. e. f. 15 possessor NP followed by ma$ ‘of’, or simple pronoun as possessor noun stem adjective (simple or expanded) demonstrative or ‘each, any’ quantifier numeral, Pl particle, and/or Definite particle ‘all’ The noun stem itself may be a compound. Many human nouns, and adjectives when referring to a human, take the suffix Sg -n or Pl -m. g. most kin terms) may be followed by Pl particle be@. Nonhuman nouns lack morphological number marking, but they can be followed by be@ to emphasize plurality.