A reference grammar of Kunuz Nubian by Ahmed Sokarno Abdel-Hafiz

By Ahmed Sokarno Abdel-Hafiz

It is a grammar of Kunuz Nubian (KN), an jap Sudanic language spoken in Southern Egypt. it's the first grammar ever written in this language. The parts coated within the learn are phonology, morphology and syntax. The bankruptcy on phonology introduces KN phonemic stock that is through the description of the syllable constitution, tension, phonetactics and phonological principles. The bankruptcy on morphology indicates that the morphemes that take part within the composition of KN observe sessions are categorised into conceptual different types. those different types are additional divided into kinds: derivational and inflectional. The bankruptcy on KN syntax begins with easy proof equivalent to note order, verb contract and reflexives. the categories of buildings mentioned comprise morphosyntactic principles, complementations and subordinates. The grammar additionally comprises texts and a thesaurus of KN.

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Though the feature [þcontinuant] is used with less e‰ciency (since English lacks the fricatives /x/ and /˜/), it nevertheless creates two full fricative series. The feature [þnasal] creates nasal stops at three places of articulation. 8 Though the vast majority of languages exhibit Feature Economy to some degree, no language makes use of all theoretically possible feature combinations. For example, English fails to combine nasality with obstruence to create a series of nasal fricatives. As observed by Martinet (1955), such gaps often correspond to functionally ine‰cient feature combinations and tend to be widely avoided across languages.

This principle can be observed in most speech sound inventories, regardless of size. Let us consider, by way of illustration, the surface-distinctive consonants of a standard variety of English as shown in (3), focusing attention on the sounds in the box. (3) ph b f v m th d y D n tS h dZ s S z Z w l, r j kh g N h 28 G. N. Clements It can be seen that voicing cross-classifies stops and fricatives to double the number of obstruents; this feature is used with maximum e‰ciency in the obstruent subsystem.

1 Maximum number of distinct coronal sounds and maximum number of coronal contrasts predicted by a feature system recognizing 4 coronal categories (row a) and a phonetic theory recognizing 7 coronal categories (row b). a. Feature theory b. Traditional phonetic theory Max. no. of coronal sounds Max. no. of coronal contrasts 4 7 6 21 26 G. N. Clements among simple stops but also among strident stops (a¤ricates). Examples of the 6 predicted contrasts for simple plosives are listed in (2), with illustrative languages drawn from Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996.

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