A Tight, Practical Integration of Relations and Functions by Harold Boley

By Harold Boley

As in different fields, in computing device technology sure gadgets of research might be synthesized from various uncomplicated components, in several methods, and with diversified ensuing stabilities. In subfields corresponding to synthetic intelligence, computational good judgment, and programming languages quite a few relational and useful components and strategies were attempted for the synthesis of declarative programs.
This textual content considers the notions of kin, as present in common sense programming or in relational databases, and of features, as present in useful programming or in equational languages. We research a declarative integration that's tight, since it occurs correct on the point of those notions, and that's nonetheless useful, since it preserves some great benefits of the generally used relational and practical languages PROLOG and LISP. The ensuing relational and practical language, RELFUN, is used the following for exemplifying all integration principles.

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2), the query F(china) asks for all unary properties of china, enumerating the attribute F = area with the returned value 3380, the attribute F = pop with its value, etc. Function variables in clauses give us the abstraction power of functional arguments in the fashion of functional programming. Thus, r e v i s e is a ternary function applying any unary function F to the Nth element of a list (for N greater than the list length or N less than 1 it returns the list unchanged): revise(F,N,[]) :& [].

For example, non-deterministically the call tup ( s u b f i e l d ( e n g i n e e r i n g ) , s (s (0)) ) returns the lists [mechanics, s [ s [0] ] ] or 37 [ a r c h i t e c t u r e , s [ s [ 0 ] ] ] ; the LISP-cons-like tup-"l"-use t u p ( s ( 0 ) l [0]) returns [s [0], 0] ; the COMMON LISP-list*-like tup-" ]"-use t u p ( a , b , c ] [ d , e ] ) returns [ a , b , c , d , e ] . Moreover, the s definition enables a direct analogue to equational addition: +(O,N) :& N. +(s[M],N) :& s(+(M,N)). It should also be noted here that RELFUN definitions obey the "constructor discipline" [O'D85], which with our notation amounts to saying simply that "clause heads must not have embedded parenthesized expressions".

F(naturals(0,V)) & V. 5 directly transfers to function variables and structures. = ap(F,ap(naturals,0,V)) & V. -- F(naturals(O,V))) & V. ) ! ) 42 changing F from a function variable into an argument variable. The effects on the WAM implementation are the same as discussed for higher-order relations. 4 The Logic/Functional Style in Use Several RELFUN projects have explored the use of relational/functional programming for non-toy problems: the language has been evaluated and tuned by programs for realistic tasks such as hypergraph processing [Bo192a], NC-program generation [BHH+91, BPS97], and materials engineering [BBK94].

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