Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function by Martin Stevens, Sami Merilaita

By Martin Stevens, Sami Merilaita

Within the final decade, study at the formerly dormant box of camouflage has complex quickly, with a number of reports demanding conventional recommendations, investigating formerly untested theories and incorporating a better appreciation of the visible and cognitive structures of the observer. utilizing stories of either genuine animals and synthetic structures, this booklet synthesises the present kingdom of play in camouflage study and figuring out. It introduces the differing kinds of camouflage and the way they paintings, together with history matching, disruptive color and obliterative shading. It additionally demonstrates the methodologies used to check them and discusses how camouflage pertains to different topics, really with reference to what it could actually let us know approximately visible belief. the combination of basic examine and stories indicates scholars and researchers the place the sector presently stands and the place intriguing and demanding difficulties stay to be solved, illustrating how the research of camouflage is probably going to development sooner or later.

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2008; Hanlon et al. 2009; Spottiswoode & Stevens 2010; Stoddard & Stevens 2010). A related, but more advanced, method than traditional Fourier methods is to use wavelets (Kiltie & Laine 1992; Kiltie et al. 1995; Ogden 1997). In general terms, the wavelet method makes use of more versatile functions than sine waves, and it can be used to break up a pattern into shifted and scaled versions of a wavelet function (hence producing a scale-based rather than frequency-based view of the pattern). In such multi-resolution analysis a pattern is examined using largely varying levels of focus to find the essential components of the pattern at different scales (Ogden 1997).

Fan, J. & Laine, A. F. 1995. A wavelet-based metric for visual discrimination with applications in evolutionary ecology. Mathematical Biosciences, 126, 21–39. Mather, G. 2009. Foundations of Sensation and Perception, 2nd edn. New York: Psychology Press. Merilaita, S. 1998. Crypsis through disruptive coloration in an isopod. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 265, 1059–1064. Merilaita, S. 2003. Visual background complexity facilitates the evolution of camouflage. Evolution. 57, 1248–1254.

Stevens, M. & Cuthill, I. C. 2007. Animal camouflage: compromise or specialise in a two patch-type environment? Behavioral Ecology, 18, 769–775. Hubel, D. H. & Wiesel, T. N. 1977. Functional architecture of the macaque visual cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Series B, 198, 1–59. Kelber A, Vorobyev, M. & Osorio, D. 2003. Animal colour vision: behavioural tests and physiological concepts. Biological Reviews, 78, 81–118. Kiltie, R. A. & Laine, A. F. 1992. Visual textures, machine vision and animal camouflage.

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