By Huang Y., Benesty J.

Audio sign Processing for Next-Generation Multimedia communique structures provides state of the art electronic sign processing thought and implementation suggestions for difficulties together with speech acquisition and enhancement utilizing microphone arrays, new adaptive filtering algorithms, multichannel acoustic echo cancellation, sound resource monitoring and separation, audio coding, and practical sound degree copy. This book's concentration is sort of completely at the processing, transmission, and presentation of audio and acoustic indications in multimedia communications for telecollaboration the place immersive acoustics will play an excellent position within the close to destiny.

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An array can also be written as the product of first-order response terms as where the relate to the microphone spacings, and the relate to chosen time delays. There is a design advantage in expressing the array response in terms of the products of first-order terms: it is now simple to represent higher-order systems as cascaded systems of lower order. 5 shows how differential arrays can be constructed for up to third-order. Extension of the design technique to higher orders is straightforward.

Two other design possibilities can be obtained by determining the equisidelobe second-order design that maximizes either the directivity index DI or the front-to-back ratio F. 19 is a plot of the directivity and front-toback indices as a function of sidelobe level. 5 dB. 5 dB maximizes the front-to-back ratio. Plots of these two designs are shown in Fig. 20. Of course, an arbitrary combination of DI and F could also be maximized for some given optimality criterion if desired. 6 Maximum Second-Order Differential DI and F Using Common First-Order Differential Microphones.

Euler’s equation can be written as where is the fluid density and v is the acoustic particle velocity. The time derivative of the particle velocity is proportional to the pressure-gradient. For an axial component of a the velocity vector, the output is proportional to the pressure differential along that axis. Thus, a first-order differential microphone is one that responds to both the scalar pressure and a component of the particle velocity of the sound field at the same measurement position. The design of higher order microphones can be formed by combinations of lower-order microphones where the sum of all of component microphone orders is equal to the desired differential microphone order.