By G. N. Sointseva
The fundamental instructions of the structural evolution of the outer, heart and internal ears in representatives of a large ecological diversity of mammals (terrestrial, subterranean, aerial, semi-aquatic and aquatic types, together with marine mammals) were traced during this monograph for the 1st time. The wide spectrum of the species studied and the appliance of recent anatomical, optical and bio-mechanical tools allowed the writer to explain formerly unknown structural good points of the peripheral a part of the auditory process in animals with a diversified specialization of listening to. The effect of ecological and evolutionary components at the structural association of the auditory organ was once analyzed. The ecological and morphological method used to be helpful in revealing the truth that the peculiarities within the auditory organ constitution in several mammalian teams have been stipulated through the animals' model to sure acoustic gains of habitat. Morphological and useful variations of the peripheral a part of the auditory process directed to the optimization of auditory sensitivity in numerous habitats proved to be critical in evolution. specific recognition used to be paid to the fewer generally studied orders of mammals (pinnipeds, cetaceans), being of curiosity either from the viewpoint in their echolocation talents (in dolphins) and the impression of water habitat at the morphological edition improvement within the constitution of the peripheral a part of the auditory analyzer in semi-aquatic and aquatic species. The ebook is illustrated with various unique micro-photos, photographs, drawings and is aimed toward morphologists, zoologists, ecologists and experts, operating within the box of bionics, in addition to scholars and tutors of organic and scientific departments in institutes and universities. Galina N. Solntseva is a Professor on the Laboratory for Bioacoustics within the A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Russian Academy of Sciences. She is a well known expert within the box of the evolutionary morphology of listening to. G.N. Solntseva has studied the peripheral a part of the auditory procedure in representatives of alternative ecological teams of mammals for a few years. She has taken half in different marine expeditions within the Black, Caspian, White Seas and within the Sea of Okhotsk so one can acquire morphological fabric and this has allowed her to collect a special (in phrases of quantity and species range) number of morphological fabric on marine mammals. G.N. Solntseva is the writer of greater than 100 medical works during this box, together with the monograph "The Auditory procedure of Mammals", issued in 1979 through the publishing condo "Nauka".
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Extra info for Auditory And Vestibular Organs of Marine Mammals (Russian Academic Monographs)
The duct of a tubular gland opens into the common duct with a hair epidermal crater at the depth about 23 µm from the skin surface. 1 1 5 3 3 1 3 2 1 5 3 5 2 4 2 4 A 1 3 3 4 5 2 2 4 B E D C 1 F 1 G 3 3 3 3 2 5 5 2 4 2 4 Diagram 2. Structure of the auricular glands in different species of mammals. A — Insectivora, Chiroptera; B, C — Carnivora; D, E — Pinnipedia: Otariidae; F, G — Pinnipedia: Phocidae. 1 — hair; 2 — secretory part of sebaceous gland; 3 — duct of sebaceous gland; 4 — secretory part of apocrine gland; 5 — duct of apocrine gland.
In the studied species of phocids, the glandular ring consists of different numbers of hypertrophied holocrine glands, complex poly-alveolar in structure. Three to six such glands open into every hair follicle. The form of the secretory alveolus of a holocrine gland is mainly cylindrical with an alveolar distal part. However, in the Caspian seal, the glands with a round alveolus predominate. Tubular glands are inherent to the auditory meatus of all species studied (Table 2). Their structure is similar to that of the order Carnivora.
In the three-belted armadillos (Tolypeutes), the long arm of the malleus is developed and is thickened ventrally. Its junction with the tympanic bone is not complete, and there is a small slot in-between. The pars transversalis of the malleus is wide. The incus is smaller than the malleus. A small head of the stapes is delimited from the body. The tympanic bone is unevenly thickened. The tympanum is not closed ventrally by a bone. Pichiciegos (Chlamyphorus) differ from the previous genus in their middle ear structure.