Bioclimatology and Natural Hazards by J. Bartholy, R. Pongrácz, Gy. Gelybó, A. Kern (auth.), Ass.

By J. Bartholy, R. Pongrácz, Gy. Gelybó, A. Kern (auth.), Ass. Prof. Dr. Katarína Střelcová, Prof. Dr. Csaba Mátyás, Dr. Axel Kleidon, Prof. Dr. Milan Lapin, Dr. František Matejka, Dr. Miroslav Blaženec, Prof. Dr. Jaroslav à kvarenina, Prof. Dr. Ján Holécy (

Anthropogenic impacts to the earth's approach, together with the ambience, hydrosphere, biosphere, cryosphere and lithosphere, signify a significant problem to our planet's ecosystems and usual environments. Bioclimatology, hydrology, bio-hydrology and eco-physiology are vital clinical study parts with extensive software to environmental security, forestry, agriculture and water administration, and safety opposed to ordinary risks together with droughts, floods, windstorms, climate extremes, and wild fires. Bioclimatology is helping to raised comprehend the motives and affects of common dangers and the way to avoid them. more advantageous wisdom of typical dangers is a crucial prerequisite for the implementation of built-in source administration. It offers an invaluable framework for battling present weather variability and for adapting to ongoing weather change.

This publication offers learn at the interactions among meteorological, climatological, hydrological and organic techniques within the atmospheric and terrestrial atmosphere. It highlights a spectrum of themes linked to weather switch and climate extremes and their influence on various monetary sectors. The contributing authors come from well known clinical learn associations and universities and specialize in problems with weather switch, soil-plant-atmosphere interactions, hydrologic cycle, ecosystems, biosphere, and common hazards.

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The daily maximum temperature of summer may be indicated by three extreme indices (i) number of summer days (SU, Tmax > 25◦ C), (ii) number of hot days (T×30GE, Tmax ≥ 30◦ C), and (iii) number of extremely hot days (T×35GE, Tmax ≥ 35◦ C). Increasing trend coefficients of these indices are detected during the entire 1961–2001 period, and the 1976–2001 subperiod, while they are decreasing in the 1961–1975 subperiod. Figure 3 presents the maps containing the trend coefficients of extreme indices SU and T×30GE in the Carpathian basin in the last 26 years.

3. The independent choice has also another dimension. Sometimes it is necessary to examine time series created under not fully correct conditions. For instance, individual data may not be taken at the same time of the year, or under different synoptic situations, or from the events with different radiation and atmospheric stability conditions. This is connected mainly with extreme precipitation totals, heat waves, drought spells, etc. Therefore, the reliability testing of time series and the testing of the independence of all the items in the sample must be done very carefully, otherwise the final statistical characteristics can be misleading.

The total number of stations in each sub-region is representative. When looking at the availability and homogeneity of the data, however, it becomes obvious K. Strelcov´a et al. V. 2009 29 30 S. H¨ansel et al. Table 1 Characterisation of the nine regions with average altitude and annual precipitation Table 2 Number of stations with at least 90% data availability for individual periods Region (number/name) Number of rain gauge stations Average altitude (m) Average annual precipitation for 1951–2000 (mm) 1/Thuringian-Franconian Mountains 2/Vogtland and Thuringian Basin 3/Western Erzgebirge 4/Eastern Erzgebirge 5/Erzgebirge Foreland 6/Western Saxon Hilly Country and Central German Black Earth Area 7/Eastern Saxon Hilly Country 8/Elbe-Mulde Lowlands 9/Lausitz and Spreewald 13 28 41 27 14 23 559 422 573 446 305 153 805 697 916 827 728 572 23 24 45 187 103 208 643 571 687 Region 1901–2000 1901–2006 1931–2000 1931–2006 1951–2000 1951–2006 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Total 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 3 15 0 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 3 13 5 4 7 4 2 10 3 5 11 51 5 4 7 3 2 7 3 5 7 43 11 27 20 14 39 27 23 21 41 223 11 24 17 9 34 24 19 19 38 195 that a statistically relevant number of stations are available only as of the early 1950s.

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