Brotherly Love: Freemasonry and Male Friendship in by Kenneth Loiselle

By Kenneth Loiselle

Friendship, an received courting based on selection instead of delivery, lay on the center of Enlightenment preoccupations with sociability and the formation of the personal sphere. In cohesion, Kenneth Loiselle argues that Freemasonry is a perfect area within which to discover the altering nature of male friendship in Enlightenment France. Freemasonry was once the most important and such a lot different voluntary association within the a long time prior to the French Revolution. not less than fifty thousand Frenchmen joined inns, the memberships of which ranged around the social spectrum from expert artisans to the top ranks of the the Aristocracy. Loiselle argues that males have been drawn to Freemasonry since it enabled them to domesticate enduring friendships that have been egalitarian and down to earth in emotion.
Drawing on rankings of records, together with deepest letters, rituals, the mins of resort conferences, and the speeches of many Freemasons, Loiselle finds the concept approaches of the visionaries who based this circulation, the ways that its participants maintained friendships either inside of and past the hotel, and the doubtless paradoxical position ladies occupied inside this friendship neighborhood. Masonic friendship continued into the tumultuous innovative period, even if the innovative management suppressed many of the motels by means of 1794. Loiselle not just examines where of friendship in eighteenth-century society and tradition but in addition contributes to the background of feelings and masculinity, and the fundamental debate over the connection among the Enlightenment and the French Revolution.

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Extra resources for Brotherly Love: Freemasonry and Male Friendship in Enlightenment France

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56. Ramsay, Essai philosophique, 26. 57. , 1. 58. , 10. 59. , 19–20. Ramsay’s emphasis. 60 The presence of moralists with such beliefs thus reminds us that, although the religious wars of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries dealt a severe blow to the Aristotelian notion of individuals as naturally sociable, not all philosophers reverted to varied degrees of egoism, as did Hobbes and Locke when conceiving of sustainable political communities. 63 It is worth recalling that Cicero’s discussion on friendship in De amicitia was not unprecedented, as similar themes are found in Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics (Books 7 and 8).

51. , 51, 70. 52. Abbé Gabriel-Louis Pérau, L’ordre des Francs-maçons trahi et le secret des Mopses révélé, ed. Daniel Ligou (Geneva: Slatkine Reprints, 1980), 136. 53. Andrew-Michael Ramsay, Essai philosophique sur le gouvernment civil où l’on traite de la nécessité, de l’origine, des droits, des bornes, & des différentes formes de la Souveraineté . . (London, [1719] 1721), a3. 32 C H APTER 1 relationship between state and society and reinventing the codes of individual and collective social behavior.

David Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001). 35. The following account of Ramsay’s life is based on George Henderson, Chevalier Ramsay (New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1952). 28 C H APTER 1 Ramsay entered Freemasonry in the late 1720s, though it is not clear in what lodge or country, and he enthusiastically embraced the movement until the end of his life. 36 Records of Ramsay’s masonic activities in France during the first half of the 1730s are sketchy at best, but it is clear that he was becoming well known in the movement by this time, having himself claimed to be Grand Orator of the order in France.

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