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Extra info for C++/CLI Primer : the visual C++ language of .NET
In Chapter 1, I introduce some of the basic concepts behind the new language, culminating in a look at the classic “Hello, World” program in C++/CLI. Following that, you’ll get a quick tour of the new language, using an example involving a simulation of radioactive decay to motivate the tour. You’ll then look in Chapter 3 at some of the infrastructure outside of the programming language itself that you’ll want to know about to program effectively in this environment, and in Chapter 4 you’ll look at object semantics in the new language, as well as mixing native and managed objects.
Let’s say you try to satisfy the compiler and remove the default constructor. Now, you’ve created a problem. If you create an atom using the built-in default constructor, you’ll have atoms with atomic number zero, which wouldn’t be an atom at all. fm Page 16 Friday, October 13, 2006 2:14 PM 16 CHAPTER 2 ■ A QUICK TOUR OF THE C++/CLI LANGUAGE FEATURES fields to zero, so if you wanted to create arrays of atoms, you would have to initialize them after constructing them. You could certainly add an Initialize function to the class to do that, but if some other programmer comes along later and tries to use the atoms before they’re initialized, that programmer will get nonsense (see Listing 2-3).
You can embed the types in the CTS, including primitive types, since they all have counterparts in the CLI: double is System::Double, and so on. You cannot use a native array or native subobject. However, there is a way to reference a native class in a managed class, as you’ll see in Chapter 12. Value Classes You may be wondering if, like the Hello type in the previous chapter, you could also have created Atom as a value type. If you only change ref to value and recompile, you get an error message that states “value types cannot define special member functions”—this is because of the definition of the default constructor, which counts as a special member function.