By J. Gonda
The nature of the Indo-European moods : with designated regard to Greek and Sanskrit
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Extra resources for Character of the Indo-European moods with special regard to Greek and Sanskrit
RV. 4, 16, 9 dcha1 Teavim2 nrmano3 gah* lit. 3” , i. e. “ announce to M. ” . g. the examples adduced by Speyer, Sanskrit Syntax, Leyden 1886, p. 344f. 2) I refer to my book 'Remarques sur la place du verbe’ , Utrecht 1952, p. 67. 3) See my article 'Monoayllaba am Satz- und Versschluß im Altindischen5: Acta Orientalia, 17, p. ; esp. p. ; and M. Bloomfield, Indog. , 31, p. 170ff. g. Schwyzer-Debrunner, Griech. , 20, p. ; F. H. Parigger, Aanschouwelijkheidsdrang als factor bij de beteekenis-ontwikkeling der Latijnsche praepositie, Thesis Utrecht 1941, p.
7) W . D. Whitney, A Sanskrit grammar5 (Leipzig 1924), p. 221, § 587 a. 36 The Indo-European moods inj. without ma in the brähmanas prove to be a recent phenomenon because they are less in number than the instances o f an inj. with mä? Apart from this, the relation between the 'present’ and the 'past’ func tions and the interchange o f present and past tenses (adduced by the authoress as an argument for her thesis that the entire tense system of the Vedic period was in a highly fluid state) cannot be discussed in abstracto, that is to say: without studying the texts in which these forms occur1).
He alternatively proposed3) to explain the origin of this formation from forms which had been infinitives or 'verbalia5: “ Finden wir doch den Inf. , aber auch als Inf. ,; und das sind eigentlich die beiden Bedeutungen, die wir zur Erklärung des Inj. brauchen” . The last clause is, in my opinion, incorrect. In both explanations Hirt widely differs from those who like Macdonell4) were inclined to maintain that the inj. originally expressed an injunction, an opinion which, however, cannot be substantiated by a reference to the use o f the “ 2nd and 3rd persons imperfect” as “ regular imperatives” .