By Ажеж К.
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Additional info for Человек говорящий. Вклад лингвистики в гуманитарные науки
However, their status as metonymies is supported by the fact that expressions such as these are not possible in all languages. , 2011b). Physical whole for part metonymies tend to be somewhat rare in realworld data. Indeed, in their study of metonymy in text messaging, which involved the close analysis of 1,000 text messages, Littlemore and Tagg (in preparation) found no instances of them, though they found numerous examples of metonymy involving other types of part for whole relationship. In contrast, physical part for whole metonymy are more common, They often involve body parts, such as those in the following examples: The hired hands are here.
An example of this relationship is: Types of metonymy and their behaviour 37 Human experience Human over non-human Subjective over objective Concrete over abstract Functional over nonfunctional Etc. Perceptual selectivity Immediate over nonimmediate Dominant over less dominant Good gestalt over poor gestalt Etc. Cultural preferences Ideal over non-ideal Stereotypical over non-stereotypical Important over less important Initial or final over middle Basic over non-basic Etc. 2 Principles determining vehicle selection in metonymy (Radden and Kövecses, 1999) Stereotypical over non-stereotypical: Sure, boys will be boys won’t they Val?
This ﬁnding suggests that, for this particular word, the effect for cause relationship is more productive than the cause for effect relationship. The fact that we can switch so readily between these different readings is testimony to the ﬂexible nature of metonymy and of the human mind. In the second example, it is not the road itself that is fast, but the cars that travel along it. Certain qualities of the road (its width, its location, perhaps even the quality of the road surface) make certain drivers deem it suitable for speedy driving.