By Colin Heywood
The primary topic of this booklet is the altering adventure of youth one of the peasants and dealing sessions of nineteenth-century France. guide paintings and casual tools of schooling within the local people grew to become much less well-liked at this level of lifestyles, when the first tuition loomed more and more huge. the 1st element of the e-book considers formative years in rural society; the second one examines the influence of commercial improvement at the lives of working-class kids; and the 3rd strains the kid labour laws of 1841 and 1874. the needs of the paintings are to appreciate why the perform of kid labour, thought of totally appropriate within the early 19th century, grew to become a subject for reform from the 1830s, and in addition to evaluate the recommendations followed by way of the French country for curtailing abuses. Its value lies in its unique synthesis of fabric on baby labour, apprenticeship and schooling, drawing on a huge diversity of basic resources in addition to the prevailing literature in similar fields of research.
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Additional resources for Childhood in Nineteenth-Century France: Work, Health and Education among the 'Classes Populaires'
5-33. Statistical evidence of economic growth, for all its limitations, goes back to the early nineteenth century. ' In these circumstances, it is not surprising that the major authorities on rural society suggest that during the second half of the eighteenth century, and the first half of the nineteenth, there was no absolute 'pauperization' of subsistence farmers and agricultural labourers. However, in relative terms these groups are considered to have fallen behind landowners and capitalist farmers.
21 22 23 24 Braudel and Labrousse, Histoire economique, vol. 2, Des derniers temps de I'age seigneurial aux preludes de Vdge industriel, 1660-1789 (Paris, 1970), pp. 651-9; for regional examples, see Jules Sion, Les Paysans de la Normande orientale (Paris, 1909), pp. 175-89; Etienne Juillard, La Vie rurale dans la plaine de Basse-Alsace (Strasbourg, 1953), pp. , Grenoble, 1973), vol. 1, pp. 198-213; Pierrard, La Vie quotidienne, pp. 131-2; Carles, Une soupe, p. 24. , 'Women, Work and Marriage in Eighteenth-Century France', in R.
126-8; Brunet, Structure agraire, pp. 321-3. Saint-Jacob, Paysans de la Bourgogne, pp. 284-91; Fabre and Lacroix, Faysans du Languedoc, pp. 238-9. , Lille, 1976), vol. 2, pp. 155-79. , Paris, 1835), vol. 2, p. 237. See also Andre de Bourgoing, Memoire en faveur des travailleurs et des indigents de la classe agricole des communes rurales de la France (Nevers, 1844), p. 21, cited by Guy Thuillier, Pour une histoire du quotidien au XIXe siecle en Nivernais (Paris, 1977), p. 206. The agricultural setting 25 up numerous indoor jobs, mending tools and dressing hemp, for example.