By F.R. Walther
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Extra info for Communication and expression in hoofed mammals
As always, however, going around a problem does not make it disappear. It is only when the other animal behaviorally emphasizes its presence that it may become a sender and a communication process may develop. It seems to me that quite a number of authors speak of a "sender" or a "communicator,'' respectively, when they merely mean a producer. Only in the latter case can one speak of a true communication. " In short, I think I only follow common usage when I speak of the sender of a message, the sender of a signal, etc, and I do not think that the concept of sending a message is incongruent with that of sharing the (contents of a) message between sender and recipient.
However, as compared to a facetoface situation, this communication is more anonymous, in that the recipient's reaction is not as directly under the sender's control. From here it is only a small step, or a more or less gradual transition respectively, to cases which obviously do not belong to communication anymore—at least when we take this term seriously and try to keep it free of undue inflation. However, by now probably even the most inveterate defender of a broad conception of "communication" will have some scruples about using this term, and such scruples certainly are not out of place.
Walther 1978d. I hardly see how these changes of the sender's orientation can be explained by the tropism theory. Again, this "choice" is hard to explain by a tropism. On the other hand, one may still speak of a kind of addressing since the display is clearly released by the other's presence and/or behavior, the latter can definitely perceive it, and it is absolutely appropriate for delivering a definite message to him. As always in the "towhomitmay concern" type, of course, the major part of the Page 26 communication process is now with the recipient, and the role of the sender's addressing has dwindled to a minimum; however, such a minimum may still be said to be recognizable.