Computational Linguistics: An Introduction by Ralph Grishman

By Ralph Grishman

Regardless of the speedy development of curiosity within the desktop research of language, this booklet presents an built-in advent to the sector. unavoidably, while many alternative methods are nonetheless being thought of, an easy paintings of synthesis will be neither attainable nor potential. however, Ralph Grishman presents a worthy survey of assorted methods to the issues of syntax research, semantic research, textual content research and usual language iteration, whereas contemplating in higher element those who appear to him most efficient. The ebook is written for readers with a few history in machine technological know-how and finite arithmetic, yet complicated wisdom of programming languages or compilers isn't really important and neither is a history in linguistics. The exposition is often transparent and scholars will locate the routines and broad bibliography helping the textual content rather invaluable.

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The resulting system is fast enough to be used in an information retrieval system with a grammar of moderate size (Plath 1976); most requests are processed in less than one minute (Damerau 198 I). 4 Transformational parsers - some details In this subsection we shall examine in somewhat greater detail the parsing procedures of MITRE and Petrick. Since these procedures are no longer used (while Petrick still employs a transformational parser, it is substantially different from his original one), our objective is not to present a full description of the parsing procedure but rather to show some of the problems of writing a transformational parser (for more details on Petrick's parser, see Grishman 2 Syntax analysis 51 (1976)).

Which is a sentence string; this sentence is ungrammatical, however. because a singular noun has been combined with a plural tensed-verb. We shall mention several such grammatical constraints later in this section. 1. To conform to the formal language theory given above. we shall structure our grammar as a context-free phrase-structure grammar. using the standard BNF notation. We could write our word category definitions as a set ofproductions: ::= a l an l the -c v » :: = be Itape Istretch I code Iwrite etc.

2 Parsing algorithms for context-free grammars Parsing a sentence with a phrase-structure grammar means finding a derivation - a sequence of productions -leading from the start symbol to the sentence. The derivation is usually represented as a parse tree; if the sentence is ambiguous (has several derivations), there will be several parse trees. 3. Parsers are classified as top-down or bottom-up. A top-down parser builds the parse tree starting from the top; in terms of derivation sequences, it works from the start symbol toward the sentence.

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