Contemporary Views on Architecture and Representations in by Eric Raimy, Charles E. Cairns

By Eric Raimy, Charles E. Cairns

The essays during this quantity tackle foundational questions in phonology that lower throughout various faculties of proposal in the self-discipline. The subject of modularity runs via all of them, although, and those essays show the advantages of the modular method of phonology, both investigating interactions between specific modules or constructing particular features of illustration inside of a selected module. even though the members take divergent perspectives on a variety of matters, they agree at the significance of representations and questions of modularity in phonology. Their essays handle the prestige of phonological good points, syllable thought, metrical constitution, the structure of the phonological part, and interplay between elements of phonology. within the early Nineties the increase of Optimality Theory--which prompt that natural computation might remedy the issues of representations and modularity--eclipsed the centrality of those concerns for phonology. This e-book is exclusive in delivering a coherent view of phonology that isn't Optimality idea established. The essays during this e-book, all via uncommon phonologists, display that computation and illustration are inherently associated; they don't deny Optimality thought, yet try to flow the sphere of phonology past it.

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Though the feature [þcontinuant] is used with less e‰ciency (since English lacks the fricatives /x/ and /˜/), it nevertheless creates two full fricative series. The feature [þnasal] creates nasal stops at three places of articulation. 8 Though the vast majority of languages exhibit Feature Economy to some degree, no language makes use of all theoretically possible feature combinations. For example, English fails to combine nasality with obstruence to create a series of nasal fricatives. As observed by Martinet (1955), such gaps often correspond to functionally ine‰cient feature combinations and tend to be widely avoided across languages.

This principle can be observed in most speech sound inventories, regardless of size. Let us consider, by way of illustration, the surface-distinctive consonants of a standard variety of English as shown in (3), focusing attention on the sounds in the box. (3) ph b f v m th d y D n tS h dZ s S z Z w l, r j kh g N h 28 G. N. Clements It can be seen that voicing cross-classifies stops and fricatives to double the number of obstruents; this feature is used with maximum e‰ciency in the obstruent subsystem.

1 Maximum number of distinct coronal sounds and maximum number of coronal contrasts predicted by a feature system recognizing 4 coronal categories (row a) and a phonetic theory recognizing 7 coronal categories (row b). a. Feature theory b. Traditional phonetic theory Max. no. of coronal sounds Max. no. of coronal contrasts 4 7 6 21 26 G. N. Clements among simple stops but also among strident stops (a¤ricates). Examples of the 6 predicted contrasts for simple plosives are listed in (2), with illustrative languages drawn from Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996.

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