Coronaviruses with Special Emphasis on First Insights by Dave Cavanagh (auth.), Axel Schmidt, Olaf Weber, Manfred H.

By Dave Cavanagh (auth.), Axel Schmidt, Olaf Weber, Manfred H. Wolff (eds.)

The outbreak of SARS (Severe acute respiration syndrome), an odd pneumonia, has got a lot realization and insurance by way of the media and has for that reason had a excessive impression at the public. The infectivity and course of transmission of the sickness seem strange, and it grew to become out to be a hugely appropriate hazard for scientific employees.

This monograph offers finished details at the latest insights into the SARS epidemic and the dependable infectious agent. heritage info on Coronaviridae (coronavirus/torovirus) and coronavirus/torovirus-associated infections in people and animals is additionally given.

The quantity might be a beneficial resource of knowledge for researchers and clinicians in virology, epidemiology and biomedicine.

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Extra resources for Coronaviruses with Special Emphasis on First Insights Concerning SARS

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10 Day-to-Day Ionosphere Variability The problem of day-to-day ionosphere variability is one of the most actual and complex in modern ionospheric physics. This is due to the fact that it is impossible to determine the main cause of this effect. A lot of different factors make a contribution to this phenomenon making it unpredictable in a deterministic sense. In addition, there is no commonly accepted way of quantitative description of this ionosphere variability. It exists more in an intuitive rather than in a well-determined manner.

The ionospheric effects of the magnetic storm is a very complex phenomenon of increased dissipation of the solar wind energy, probably one of the most complex in ionospheric physics involving a lot of changes in the ion composition, substantial changes in plasma temperature and concentration, etc. Practically all ionospheric parameters are affected by the magnetic storm. One can find the perfect review of the magnetic storms effects in the F-region of the ionosphere in the work by Prölss (1995).

To have an idea how the geomagnetic storm effects the ionosphere let us consider the critical frequency variations during geomagnetic storms (Fig. 20). Two consecutive storms in September 1989 resulted in a deep negative depression of the critical frequency on mid-latitude ionospheric stations. The storm depression lasts more than one day. A slight positive deviation can be marked in all stations at the beginning of the first storm. These deviations are called the positive and negative phase of the ionospheric storm respectively.

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