Cortical Development: From Specification to Differentiation by Richard S. Nowakowski, Verne S. Caviness Jr, Takao Takahashi

By Richard S. Nowakowski, Verne S. Caviness Jr, Takao Takahashi (auth.), Dr. Christine Hohmann (eds.)

The cerebral neocortex, a constitution exact to the mammalian mind and prerequisite for greater cognitive capabilities, has in view that many years attracted the interest of neurobiologists and developmental biologists alike. This quantity provides a entire and up to date evaluation of early cortical improvement. It presents concise details at the start, specification, migration and terminal differentiation of neocortical cells. either the mobile and molecular occasions resulting in the institution of a useful neocortex are offered in substantial aspect, and attainable implications for neurodegenerative illnesses are discussed.

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Gli 2 and 3 are Shh-dependent transcriptional activators or repressors with overlapping functions, whereas Gli 1 is a transcriptional activator induced by Shh-mediated Gli 2 and 3 signals (Litingtung and Chiang 2000). Shh also regulates the proteolytic processing of Gli proteins, and C-terminal Gli 2 and 3 fragments are associated with transcriptional activation, whereas N-terminal Gli fragments are associated with transcriptional repression of downstream target genes (Litingtung and Chiang 2000).

Nowakowski RS, Rakic P (1974) Clearance rate of exogenous 3H-thymidine from the plasma of pregnant rhesus monkeys. Cell Tissue Kinet 7:189-194 Nowakowski RS, Rakic P (1975) Time of origin of neurons in the hippocampal region of the rhesus monkey. Neurosci Abstr 1:773 Nowakowski RS, Lewin SB, Miller MW (1989) Bromodeoxyuridine immunohistochemical determination of the lengths of the cell cyde and the DNA-synthetic phase for an anatomically defined population. J NeurocytoI18:311-318 Owens DF, Liu X, Kriegstein AR (1999) Changing properties of GABA(A) receptor-mediated signaling during early neocortical development.

1993; Franklin and Blakemore 1995; Miller 1996); these inter mediate pro ge ni tors retain the ability to generate GFAP + / A2B5 + (type II) astrocytes under specific culture conditions (induding application of BMPs) and following transplantation into CNS regions of adult hosts denuded of glial elements (Franklin and Blakemore 1995; Mabie et al. 1997). OLs can also arise from undifferentiated cells present within the SVZ and cerebral cortex proper that are distinct from 0-2A progenitors, and whose differentiation is driven by distinct environmental cues present within the postmigratory microenvironment (Hardy and Friedrich 1996; Levison and Goldman 1997; Thomas et al.

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