By Joseph L. Love
This leading edge learn compares the background of financial principles and ideologies in Rumania and Brazil—and extra largely, these in East principal Europe and Latin America—in the past due 19th and 20th centuries.
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Additional resources for Crafting the Third World: Theorizing Underdevelopment in Rumania and Brazil (Comparative Studies Hist, Inst & Pub Po)
In the rituals of possession the santo is first summoned to the room of the assentos with sacrifices and offerings; these offerings, together with the ritual chants and the drumming, enable the transference of spiritual power from assento to the head, Ori,5 from the object to the person, in the ritual of spirit possession. What Mãe Stella calls ‘initiation’ proper (Azevedo Santos 1995) is the process during which the person learns to incorporate the Orixá, becoming a filha do santo. Most people with santo assentado never get initiated: only people with the gift to incorporate Orixás do.
Somebody in the factory decided to paint his skin black and his clothes white. One day another person saw the image and recognised his spirit – that of an old black slave (Preto Velho). 4. Images, Feira de São Joaquim. From left to right (foreground): Exu, Iemanjá, Zigana (Photograph by Stéphane Malysse, 2001) Sansi text 18/6/07 38 14:38 Page 38 Fetishes and Monuments Images, like spirits, make visible personal and collective histories in Candomblé. Their iconographies sometimes seem completely alien to Candomblé, but people recognise Indians, rogues, gangsters, dolls, whores, saints and drunkards as the spirits they incorporate.
Exu is also called the Slave. When I asked Madalena why she called that spirit ‘the Slave’, her answer was that he is the Slave because he ‘works’ at the command of the mãe do santo. ‘Work’ (‘trabalho’) in this sense also means ‘to work spells’, because the Slave is the master of sorcery. He is subordinated to the mãe do santo, in contrast with the Orixás, who rule over her. The Slave is made subject to the mãe do santo by the arts of sorcery, which make him ‘work’ the spells. But his subordination is ambiguous.