By Vasily Simanzhenkov
Crude Oil Chemistry is best a scientifically detailed consultant to the total relatives of classical and smooth analytical and strategy applied sciences in petroleum refining. In widening its imaginative and prescient additionally to include a geological heritage of petroleum formation, present-day geopolitical and fiscal concerns, and methods to redress and increase the fragile ties among the petroleum and the surroundings, this reference succeeds as a complete illustration of the standards going into the chemistry of crude oil and their outward sure ramifications. The publication completely evaluates the chemistry and processing of low API gravity high-sulfur heavy crude oil more and more trusted within the undefined.
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This is represented in the structure of modern rifts: thinning of terrestrial layers up to 30-35 km; reduction of asthenosphere depth; strong increase of a thermal flow under the rift; volcano formation; formation of the thermal water sources; and seismicity. All these characterize rifts as extremely active structures in the lithosphere. The mineral pools in the rifts are formed during the initial stage of the destruction of the terrestrial layers. Narrow deflections filled with 4-7 km of organic containing solid minerals exist for short time intervals of 5-20 million years.
4 Characterization by Viscosity-Gravity Constant (vgc) This parameter, along with the Universal Oil Products (UOP) characterization factor, has been used, to some extent, as a means of classifying crude oils. Both parameters are usually employed to give an indication of the paraffinicity of the petroleum. Both have been used, if a subtle differentiation can be made, as a means of petroleum characterization rather than for petroleum classification. Nevertheless, the viscosity-gravity constant is one of the indexes proposed to characterize oil types.
Although the correlation index yields useful information, it is in fact limited to distillable materials and, when many petroleum samples are to be compared, the analysis of results may be cumbersome. It is also possible to describe a crude oil by an expression of its chemical composition on the basis of the correlation index figures for its middle portions. 3 Classification by Density Density has been the principal and often the only specification of petroleum products and was taken as an index of the proportion of gasoline and kerosene present.